Sexual victimization, health status, and VA healthcare utilization among lesbian and bisexual OEF/OIF veterans
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Bisexuality; Cohort Studies; Crime Victims; Female; *Health Status; Homosexuality, Female; Humans; Iraq War, 2003-2011; Male; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Prospective Studies; Sex Offenses; Sexual Behavior; United States; United States Department of Veterans Affairs; Veterans; Veterans Health
Health and Medical Administration | Women's Health
BACKGROUND: Many lesbian and bisexual (LB) women veterans may have been targets of victimization in the military based on their gender and presumed sexual orientation, and yet little is known regarding the health or mental health of LB veterans, nor the degree to which they feel comfortable receiving care in the VA. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental health and gender-specific conditions, VA healthcare satisfaction and trauma exposure among LB veterans receiving VA care compared with heterosexually-identified women veterans receiving. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) women veterans at two large VA facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and sixty five women veterans that completed a baseline survey. Thirty-five veterans (9.6 %) identified as gay or lesbian (4.7 %), or bisexual (4.9 %). MAIN MEASURES: Measures included sexual orientation, military sexual trauma, mental and gender-specific health diagnoses, and VA healthcare utilization and satisfaction. KEY RESULTS: LB OEF/OIF veterans were significantly more likely to have experienced both military and childhood sexual trauma than heterosexual women (MST: 31 % vs. 13 %, p < .001; childhood sexual trauma: 60 % vs. 36 %, p = .01), to be hazardous drinkers (32 % vs. 16 %, p = .03) and rate their current mental health as worse than before deployment (35 % vs. 16 %, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Many LB veterans have experienced sexual victimization, both within the military and as children, and struggle with substance abuse and poor mental health. Health care providers working with female Veterans should be aware of high rates of military sexual trauma and childhood abuse and refer women to appropriate VA treatment and support groups for sequelae of these experiences. Future research should focus on expanding this study to include a larger and more diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender veterans receiving care at VA facilities across the country.
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Citation: J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Jul;28 Suppl 2:S604-8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-013-2357-9. Link to article on publisher's site
Mattocks, Kristin M.; Sadler, Anne; Yano, Elizabeth M.; Krebs, Erin E.; Zephyrin, Laurie; Brandt, Cynthia; Kimerling, Rachel; Sandfort, Theo; Dichter, Melissa E.; Weiss, Jeffrey J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; and Haskell, Sally, "Sexual victimization, health status, and VA healthcare utilization among lesbian and bisexual OEF/OIF veterans" (2013). Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications. 553.