Predictors of dietary change and maintenance in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Age Factors; Aged; Analysis of Variance; Cereals; Diet, Fat-Restricted; Dietary Fats; Educational Status; Energy Intake; Female; Fruit; Health Planning; Health Surveys; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Nutritional Sciences; Patient Compliance; Postmenopause; Vegetables; *Women's Health


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies


OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of dietary change to and maintenance of a low-fat eating pattern (or = 5 servings fruits/vegetables daily, and > or = 6 servings grains daily) among a cohort of postmenopausal women. Candidate predictors included intrapersonal, interpersonal, intervention program characteristics, and clinical center.

DESIGN: Longitudinal study within the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. Dietary change was evaluated after 1 year of participation in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, and dietary maintenance after 3 years.

SUBJECTS: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline who were randomized to the intervention arm of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial (n=19,541).

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed and associations evaluated between candidate predictors and each of the three dietary goals: percent energy from fat, fruit/vegetable servings, and grain servings.

RESULTS: Year 1 (change) predictors of percent energy from fat (PCONCLUSIONS: The strongest predictors of dietary change and maintenance were attending intervention sessions and self-monitoring dietary intake. Novel was the finding that optimism predicted dietary change.

DOI of Published Version



J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Jul;107(7):1155-66. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of the American Dietetic Association

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID