Use of a flow-mediated vasodilation technique to assess endothelial function in dogs

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Blood Flow Velocity; Brachial Artery; Dogs; Endothelium, Vascular; Female; Femoral Artery; Reproducibility of Results; Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed; Vasodilation


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies


OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess the reproducibility of a protocol to noninvasively test endothelial function in dogs on the basis of the flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) procedure used in humans. ANIMALS: 5 healthy spayed female dogs.

PROCEDURES: Luminal arterial diameter and blood flow velocity in the brachial and femoral arteries were measured with ultrasonography. The within-dog reproducibility of these ultrasonographic measurements was tested. An occlusion period of 1, 3, or 5 minutes with an inflatable cuff was used to create the FMD response. Measurements made at 15, 30, and 60 seconds following release of the occlusion were compared with measurements made immediately prior to each occlusion to assess the FMD response.

RESULTS: Within-dog reproducibility of measurements revealed moderate to high correlations. Change from baseline in luminal arterial diameter was most substantial when measured at 30 seconds following release of occlusion, whereas blood flow velocity changes were maximal when measured at 15 seconds following release. The brachial imaging site provided a larger number of significant FMD responses than the femoral site. The 3-minute occlusion period provided equal or better responses than the 5-minute occlusion period.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ultrasonographic measurement of the FMD responses was a feasible and reproducible technique and significant changes from baseline were detected. The FMD responses in dogs were most substantial when performed at the brachial artery with blood flow velocity and luminal arterial diameter changes from baseline measured at 15 and 30 seconds, respectively, following release of a 3-minute occlusion period.

DOI of Published Version



Am J Vet Res. 2006 Sep;67(9):1533-40. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

American journal of veterinary research

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Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID