Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures


Rebecca D. Jackson, The Ohio State University
Andrea Z. LaCroix, University of Washington
Margery Gass, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Robert B. Wallace, University of Iowa
John Robbins, University of California at Davis School of Medicine
Cora E. Lewis, University of Alabama
Tamsen Bassford, University of Arizona
Shirley A. A. Beresford, University of Washington
Henry R. Black, Rush University Medical Center
Patricia L. Blanchette
Denise E. Bonds, University of Virginia
Robert L. Brunner, University of Nevada School of Medicine
Robert G. Brzyski, University of Texas at San Antonio
Bette J. Caan, Kaiser Permanente
Jane A. Cauley, University of Pittsburgh
Rowan T. Chlebowski, University of California
Steven R. Cummings
Iris A. Granek, State University of New York at Stony Brook
Jennifer Hays, Baylor Medical College
Gerardo Heiss, University of North Carolina
Susan L. Hendrix, Wayne State University School of Medicine
Barbara V. Howard, Medstar Research Institute
Judith Hsia, George Washington University
F. Allan Hubbell, University of California, Irvine
Karen C. Johnson, University of Tennessee
Howard Judd
Jane Morley Kotchen, Medical College of Wisconsin
Lewis H. Kuller, University of Pittsburgh
Robert D. Langer, Geisinger Health System
Norman L. Lasser, University of California at San Diego
Marian C. Limacher, University of Florida
Shari E. Ludlam, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
JoAnn E. Manson, Harvard Medical School
Karen L. Margolis, HealthPartners Research Foundation
Joan McGowan, National Heart. Lung, Blood Institute
Judith K. Ockene, University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolFollow
Mary Jo O'Sullivan
Lawrence Phillips, Emory University
Ross L. Prentice, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Gloria E. Sarto, University of Wisconsin–Madison
Marcia L. Stefanick, Stanford University
Linda Van Horn, Northwestern University
Jean Wactawski-Wende, State University of New York
Evelyn Whitlock, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research
Garnet L. Anderson, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Annlouise R. Assaf, Brown University
David H. Barad, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Aged; Bone Density; Calcium; Calcium Carbonate; Double-Blind Method; Drug Combinations; Drug Interactions; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Fractures, Bone; Hip Fractures; Humans; Kidney Calculi; Middle Aged; Patient Compliance; Postmenopause; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk; Spinal Fractures; Vitamin D


Preventive Medicine


BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.

METHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily or placebo. Fractures were ascertained for an average follow-up period of 7.0 years. Bone density was measured at three WHI centers.

RESULTS: Hip bone density was 1.06 percent higher in the calcium plus vitamin D group than in the placebo group (PCONCLUSIONS: Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000611.).

DOI of Published Version



N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The New England journal of medicine

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID