Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Aged; Bone Density; Calcium; Calcium Carbonate; Double-Blind Method; Drug Combinations; Drug Interactions; Estrogen Replacement Therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Fractures, Bone; Hip Fractures; Humans; Kidney Calculi; Middle Aged; Patient Compliance; Postmenopause; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk; Spinal Fractures; Vitamin D
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal.
METHODS: We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000 mg of elemental [corrected] calcium as calcium carbonate with 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily or placebo. Fractures were ascertained for an average follow-up period of 7.0 years. Bone density was measured at three WHI centers.
RESULTS: Hip bone density was 1.06 percent higher in the calcium plus vitamin D group than in the placebo group (PCONCLUSIONS: Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000611.).
DOI of Published Version
N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83. Link to article on publisher's site
The New England journal of medicine
Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette PL, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan BJ, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek IA, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam SE, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad DH. (2006). Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa055218. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/wfc_pp/436