Gender differences among smokers and quitters in the Working Well Trial

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Adult; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Gender Identity; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; *Health Promotion; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Smoking; *Smoking Cessation; Treatment Outcome; *Workplace


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies


BACKGROUND: Gender differences in smoking and smoking cessation among participants in the Working Well Trial are characterized.

METHODS: A prospective randomized matched-pair evaluation was conducted among 90 predominantly blue-collar worksites. Cross-sectional surveys of employees' tobacco use behaviors were conducted at baseline and after a 2.5-year smoking cessation intervention. Respondents included 5,523 females and 12,313 males at baseline and 4,663 females and 10,919 males at follow-up. The main outcome measures included self-reported continuous smoking abstinence rates for 7 days and for 6 months.

RESULTS: Smoking prevalence was significantly higher for women than for men at baseline, but not at follow-up. Variables believed to influence smoking cessation were compared at baseline. Significant gender differences were found for number of cigarettes smoked/day, number of previous quit attempts, job strain, stage of change, and behavioral processes of change. At follow-up, no gender differences in quit rates were observed; however, women in the intervention condition were more likely to quit than women in the control condition, whereas no differences were seen among men by treatment condition.

CONCLUSIONS: Gender is not a strong predictor of smoking cessation in this population; however, women were more likely to quit with an intervention than without one.

DOI of Published Version



Prev Med. 1998 Jul-Aug;27(4):553-61.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Preventive medicine

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID