Regulation of the promoter for human immunoglobulin gamma3 germ-line transcription and its interaction with the 3'alpha enhancer

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology

Publication Date


Document Type



Antigens, CD40; B-Lymphocytes; Base Sequence; CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins; DNA; DNA-Binding Proteins; Drug Synergism; Enhancer Elements (Genetics); Genes, Immunoglobulin; Humans; Immunoglobulin Class Switching; Immunoglobulin G; Interleukin-4; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutagenesis, Insertional; NF-kappa B; Nuclear Proteins; Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate; Promoter Regions (Genetics); RNA, Messenger; Response Elements; STAT6 Transcription Factor; Trans-Activation (Genetics); Trans-Activators; Transcription, Genetic; Tumor Cells, Cultured


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies


The mechanism underlying the differential regulation of switching to human IgG subclasses is still largely unknown. We demonstrate that the region upstream of the initiation sites for gamma3 germ-line (GL) transcripts contains a functional promoter which is synergistically induced by IL-4, antibody to CD40 and phorbol dibutyrate in transient transfection assays in the human DG75 cell line. Linker-scanning mutations identified multiple elements in the 3' half of the evolutionarily conserved sequence that are required for inducibility. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that Stat6 and NF-kappaB p50 / p65 are induced after stimulation, and bind to specific sequence motifs within the promoter. Overexpression of Stat6, NF-kappaB p50 / p65 and C / EBPgamma synergistically induced the GL gamma3 promoter. Insertion of DNA segments from the human 3' IgH regions, which may function as a locus control region for switch recombination, greatly activated the promoter in an orientation-independent manner. Duplication of the enhancer fragments resulted in a further increase of promoter activity. The greater enhancement of the HS1,2 fragment from the 3' alpha1 rather than the alpha2 locus may suggest a mechanistic explanation for the differential expression of various isotypes.

DOI of Published Version



Eur J Immunol. 2000 Apr;30(4):1019-29.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

European journal of immunology

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PubMed ID