An electronic menstrual cycle calendar: comparison of data quality with a paper version

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Computers; *Electronics; Female; Humans; *Menstrual Cycle; Menstruation; Paper; Patient Satisfaction; Pilot Projects; Quality Control; Records


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies


OBJECTIVES: This pilot study compared a prototype electronic menstrual calendar on a handheld computer with a paper calendar for data quality and participants' perceptions.

DESIGN: Twenty-three women completed identical information about menstrual bleeding and symptoms using paper and electronic calendars for 1 month each.

RESULTS: Use of the paper calendar resulted in more missing data than the electronic calendar for bleeding characteristics (13% vs. 4%) and symptoms (35% vs. 4%). The electronic calendar's ability to log data entries revealed retrospective entry for 61% of the data. Total data entry and cleaning time was reduced by 81% with the electronic calendar. Overall, participants preferred the electronic (70%) to the paper (22%) calendar.

CONCLUSIONS: Data quality with conventional paper calendars may be poorer than recognized. The data-logging feature, unique to the electronic calendar, is critical for assessing data quality. Electronic menstrual calendars can be useful data collection tools for research in women's health.


Menopause. 2000 May-Jun;7(3):200-8.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Menopause (New York, N.Y.)

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID