The Preliminary Efficacy of a Sleep Self-management Intervention Using a Personalized Health Monitoring Device during Pregnancy

UMMS Affiliation

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science

Publication Date


Document Type



Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications | Sleep Medicine | Translational Medical Research


Background: Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy and are associated with the development of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Personal health monitors (PHM) can facilitate change in health behaviors, though few studies have examined their use in improving sleep during pregnancy. This pilot study aimed to characterize sleep changes during pregnancy in women participating in a self-management intervention using a PHM.

Participants/Methods: Participants with low risk, singleton pregnancies from Western Massachusetts were randomized at 24 weeks gestation to receive sleep education only (n = 12) or sleep education, and PHM intervention (n = 12). The single-session sleep education was given at baseline by a registered nurse. Sleep quality, duration, efficiency, disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks follow-up using questionnaires. We described mean +/- standard deviation within and between-group changes in each sleep outcome from baseline to 12 weeks follow-up.

Results: The PHM arm experienced larger sleep quality improvements and daytime sleepiness than the sleep-education only arm, but the differences were not statistically significant. In the PHM arm, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score decreased (i.e., sleep quality increased) 1.22 +/- 2.39 (p = .16), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score decreased (i.e., daytime sleepiness decreased) 1.11 +/- 2.08 (p = .15). In the sleep-education arm PSQI decreased 0.57 +/- 2.37 (p = .55) and ESS decreased 1.29 +/- 2.93 (p = .29). Neither group experienced statistically significant changes in sleep duration, efficiency, disturbances, or fatigue.

Conclusion: Sleep education with PHM may improve or prevent decreases in sleep outcomes during pregnancy. Further investigation in larger trials is warranted.


UMCCTS funding

DOI of Published Version



Hsiao WH, Paterno MT, Iradukunda F, Hawkins' M. The Preliminary Efficacy of a Sleep Self-management Intervention Using a Personalized Health Monitoring Device during Pregnancy. Behav Sleep Med. 2021 Nov-Dec;19(6):705-716. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2020.1851230. Epub 2020 Nov 27. PMID: 33245245; PMCID: PMC8155100. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Behavioral sleep medicine


The UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science (UMCCTS), UL1TR000161, helped fund this study.

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Link to Article in PubMed

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