Differential expression of the chromosomal high mobility group proteins 14 and 17 during the onset of differentiation in mammalian osteoblasts and promyelocytic leukemia cells
The expression of chromosomal proteins HMG 14 and HMG 17 during proliferation and differentiation into the osteoblast and monocyte phenotypes was studied. Cellular levels of HMG 14 and HMG 17 mRNA were assayed in primary cultures of calvarial-derived rat osteoblasts under conditions that: (1) support complete expression of the mature osteocytic phenotype and development of a bone tissue-like organization; and (2) where development of osteocytic phenotypic properties are both delayed and reduced in extent of expression. HMG 14 and HMG 17 are preferentially expressed in proliferating osteoblasts and decline to basal levels post-proliferatively at the onset of extracellular matrix mineralization. In contrast, under conditions that are not conducive to extracellular matrix mineralization, HMG 14 is maximally expressed following the downregulation of proliferation. Consistent with previous reports by Bustin and co-workers [Crippa et al., 1990], HMG 14 and HMG 17 are expressed in proliferating HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells and downregulated post-proliferatively following phorbol ester-induced monocytic differentiation. However, differentiation into the monocyte phenotype is accompanied by reinitiation of HMG 17 gene expression. The results indicate that the levels of HMG 14 and HMG 17 mRNA are selectively down-regulated during differentiation.