Chronic kidney disease prevalence in Rivas, Nicaragua: use of a field device for creatinine measurement

UMMS Affiliation

School of Medicine; Senior Scholars Program

Faculty Mentor

Ryan Ferguson (Boston University School of Public Health)

Publication Date


Document Type



Creatinine; Female; Humans; Male; Nicaragua; Point-of-Care Systems; Prevalence; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Sensitivity and Specificity


Diagnosis | Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications | Male Urogenital Diseases | Medical Biochemistry | Nephrology


OBJECTIVE: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified in Pacific coastal regions of Central America, and screening in the field in these low income countries remains logistically problematic. We tested the performance characteristics of a point of care creatinine analyzer compared to standardized serum creatinine measurements.

METHODS: Measurements were conducted in 100 persons from a local health center (n=34) and hospital (n=66) in Rivas, Nicaragua using both a point-of-care analyzer (StatSensor Xpress, Nova Biomedical) and serum creatinine by Jaffe kinetic method with a Roche Cobas Integra 400 analyzer. Percent coefficient of variation, sensitivity and specificity of the StatSensor Xpress were determined.

RESULTS: The average coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.28% for the serum creatinine and CV for the StatSensor Xpress analyzer was 6.8%. The median intra-individual creatinine results obtained with the StatSensor Xpress device were 0.32 mg/dL higher than those by serum creatinine by Jaffe kinetic method. The sensitivity and specificity of the StatSensor Xpress device for identifying subjects with abnormal creatinine (defined as > 1.2 mg/dL) was 100% and 79%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Point of care testing for creatinine demonstrated acceptable repeatability, excellent sensitivity (100%) and modest specificity (79%). Using the point of care testing will allow for generalized screening in the field in low income countries; however, confirmation for elevated levels > 1.2 mg/dL will require a second laboratory test confirmation.

DOI of Published Version



Clin Biochem. 2015 Apr;48(6):456-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2015.01.005. Epub 2015 Jan 21. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Clinical biochemistry


Madeline Fiore participated in this study as a medical student as part of the Senior Scholars research program at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID