Experimental demonstration of benchtop x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) of gold nanoparticle-loaded objects using lead- and tin-filtered polychromatic cone-beams

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Radiology

Publication Date


Document Type



Color; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography; Gold; Lead; Metal Nanoparticles; Phantoms, Imaging; Tin


Biological and Chemical Physics | Investigative Techniques | Medical Biophysics | Nanotechnology | Radiology


This report presents the first experimental demonstration, to our knowledge, of benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) for a simultaneous determination of the spatial distribution and amount of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) within small-animal-sized objects. The current benchtop experimental setup successfully produced XFCT images accurately showing the regions containing small amount of GNPs (on the order of 0.1 mg) within a 3 cm diameter plastic phantom. In particular, the performance of the current XFCT setup was improved remarkably (e.g., at least a factor of 3 reduction in XFCT scan time) using a tin-filtered polychromatic beam in comparison with a lead-filtered beam. The results of this study strongly suggest that the current benchtop XFCT configuration can be made practical with a few modifications such as the deployment of array detectors, while meeting realistic constraints on x-ray dose, scan time and image resolution for routine pre-clinical in vivo imaging with GNPs.

DOI of Published Version



Phys Med Biol. 2012 Dec 7;57(23):N457-67. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/57/23/N457. Epub 2012 Nov 8. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Physics in medicine and biology

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID