ACR Appropriateness Criteria ((R)) Jaundice

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Radiology

Publication Date


Document Type



Diagnosis | Digestive System Diseases | Health Services Administration | Health Services Research | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms | Radiology


Jaundice is the end result of myriad causes, which makes the role of imaging in this setting particularly challenging. In the United States, the most common causes of all types of jaundice fall into four categories including hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, blockage of the common bile duct by a gallstone or tumor, and toxic reaction to a drug or medicinal herb. Clinically, differentiating between the various potential etiologies of jaundice requires a detailed history, targeted physical examination, and pertinent laboratory studies, the results of which allow the physician to categorize the type of jaundice into mechanical or nonmechanical causes. Imaging modalities used to evaluate the jaundiced patient (all etiologies) include abdominal ultrasound (US), CT, MR cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic US. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.


UC, Appropriate Use Criteria, Appropriateness Criteria, Choledocholithiasis, Gallstone, Hepatitis, Hyperbilirubinemia, Jaundice, Liver disease

DOI of Published Version



J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 May;16(5S):S126-S140. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.012. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID