ACR Appropriateness Criteria Imaging After Shoulder Arthroplasty

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Radiology

Publication Date


Document Type





There has been a rapid increase in the number of shoulder arthroplasties, including partial or complete humeral head resurfacing, hemiarthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, performed in the United States over the past two decades. Imaging can play an important role in diagnosing the complications that can occur in the setting of these shoulder arthroplasties. This review is divided into two parts. The first part provides a general discussion of various imaging modalities, comprising radiography, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine, and their role in providing useful, treatment-guiding information. The second part focuses on the most appropriate imaging algorithms for shoulder arthroplasty complications such as aseptic loosening, infection, fracture, rotator cuff tendon tear, and nerve injury. The evidence-based ACR Appropriateness Criteria guidelines offered in this report were reached via an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) for rating the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. Further analysis and review of the guidelines were performed by a multidisciplinary expert panel. In those instances in which there was insufficient or equivocal data for recommending the appropriate imaging algorithm, expert opinion may have supplemented the available evidence.


Appropriateness Criteria, CT, MRI, aseptic loosening, periprosthetic infection, shoulder arthroplasty

DOI of Published Version



J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Nov;13(11):1324-1336. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2016.07.028. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID