Grading of Regional Apposition after Flow-Diverter Treatment (GRAFT): a comparative evaluation of VasoCT and intravascular OCT

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Radiology; Department of Neurosurgery

Publication Date


Document Type



Neurology | Radiology | Surgery


BACKGROUND: Poor vessel wall apposition of flow diverter (FD) stents poses risks for stroke-related complications when treating intracranial aneurysms, necessitating long-term surveillance imaging. To facilitate quantitative evaluation of deployed devices, a novel algorithm is presented that generates intuitive two-dimensional representations of wall apposition from either high-resolution contrast-enhanced cone-beam CT (VasoCT) or intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) images.

METHODS: VasoCT and OCT images were obtained after FD implant (n=8 aneurysms) in an experimental sidewall aneurysm model in canines. Surface models of the vessel wall and FD device were extracted, and the distance between them was presented on a two-dimensional flattened map. Maps and cross-sections at potential locations of malapposition detected on VasoCT-based maps were compared. The performance of OCT-based apposition detection was evaluated on manually labeled cross-sections using logistic regression against a thresholded ( > /=0.25 mm) apposition measure.

RESULTS: VasoCT and OCT acquisitions yielded similar Grading of Regional Apposition after Flow-Diverter Treatment (GRAFT) apposition maps. GRAFT maps from VasoCT highlighted 16 potential locations of malapposition, of which two were found to represent malapposed device struts. Logistic regression showed that OCT could detect malapposition with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 81%.

CONCLUSIONS: GRAFT delivered quantitative and visually convenient representations of potential FD malapposition and occasional acute thrombus formation. A powerful combination for future neuroendovascular applications is foreseen with the superior resolution delivered by intravascular OCT.


Aneurysm, Angiography, Endoscopy, Flow Diverter, Technology

DOI of Published Version



J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Aug;8(8):847-52. doi: 10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011843. Epub 2015 Jul 28. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of neurointerventional surgery

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID