UMMS Affiliation

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences; Department of Pediatrics

Publication Date


Document Type



Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Antigens, Protozoan; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Endemic Diseases; Female; Humans; Interferon-gamma; Interleukin-10; Kenya; *Malaria Vaccines; Malaria, Falciparum; Male; Plasmodium falciparum; Protozoan Proteins


Biostatistics | Epidemiology | Health Services Research | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Pediatrics


The stability of anti-malarial immunity will influence the interpretation of immunologic endpoints during malaria vaccine trials conducted in endemic areas. Therefore, we evaluated cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) by Kenyans from a holoendemic area at a 9-month interval. The proportion of adults with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to 9-mer LSA-1 peptides was similar at both time-points, whereas responses from children decreased (P < 0.05). Response to the longer, 23-mer LSA-1 peptide was variable, decreasing in adults and children over time (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively). The proportion of children with IFN-gamma responses to either antigen at the second time-point was significantly lower than that of adults, yet more adults responded to 9-mer TRAP peptides (P < 0.02). In contrast, the proportion of interleukin-10 responses to LSA-1 and TRAP was similar at both time-points for both age groups. Most noteworthy was that even when the repeat cross-sectional frequency of cytokine responses was the same, these responses were not generated by the same individuals. This suggests that cytokine responses to LSA-1 and TRAP are transient under natural exposure conditions.

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © 2006 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr;74(4):585-90. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene

PubMed ID


Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed



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