Outcomes and early revascularization for patients > or = 65 years of age with cardiogenic shock

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Age Distribution; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; Cohort Studies; Female; *Health Services for the Aged; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Massachusetts; *Myocardial Revascularization; *Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; Shock, Cardiogenic; Treatment Outcome


Bioinformatics | Biostatistics | Epidemiology | Health Services Research


Hospital survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock has improved during recent years. It is unclear whether this mortality benefit also applies to elderly patients with cardiogenic shock. Elderly residents (age > or = 65 years) of the Worcester, Massachusetts metropolitan area (1990 census population = 437,000) hospitalized with confirmed AMI and cardiogenic shock in all metropolitan Worcester, Massachusetts hospitals between 1986 and 1997 constituted the sample of interest. We examined the use of coronary reperfusion strategies, adjunctive therapy, and hospital mortality in a cohort of 166 cardiogenic patients treated early in the reperfusion era (1986 to 1991) compared with 144 patients with AMI treated approximately 1 decade later (1993 to 1997). There was a significant increase in the use of an early revascularization strategy over time (2% vs 16%, p <0.001). Marked increases in use of antiplatelet therapy, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were also observed over the decade-long experience. In-hospital case fatality declined significantly over time, from 80% (1986 to 1991) to 69% (1993 to 1997) in elderly patients who developed cardiogenic shock (p = 0.03). After adjusting for differences in potentially confounding prognostic characteristics between patients hospitalized in the 2 study periods, an even more pronounced reduction in hospital mortality (42%) was observed for the most recently hospitalized cohort. The most powerful predictor of in-hospital survival was use of an early revascularization approach to treatment. Thus, hospital mortality has declined for patients > or = 65 years of age with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, and this decline has occurred in the setting of broader use of early revascularization and adjunctive medical therapy for this high-risk population.


Am J Cardiol. 2001 Apr 1;87(7):844-8.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

The American journal of cardiology

PubMed ID


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Link to Article in PubMed