Differences in Caregiving Outcomes and Experiences by Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences; Commonwealth Medicine, Center for Health Policy and Research

Publication Date


Document Type



Gender and Sexuality | Health Services Administration | Health Services Research


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether caregiving experiences and their health-related outcomes differ by sexual orientation and gender identity in a representative U.S. caregiver sample.

METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed of the cross-sectional, nationally representative National Alliance for Caregiving online survey that was conducted in 2014. To account for the study design, we used sampling weights and then added propensity score weighting to account for imbalances between LGBT respondents and their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts, that is, non-LGBT caregivers. Outcomes consisted of caregivers' self-reported health, financial strain, physical strain, and emotional stress.

RESULTS: LGBT caregivers were significantly younger, more racially and ethnically diverse, less likely to be married, and more likely to be of low socioeconomic status than their non-LGBT counterparts. Caregiving experiences and intensity were similar, but after controlling for demographic and caregiving characteristics, LGBT caregivers were significantly more likely to report financial strain and showed trends toward elevated levels of poor health and emotional stress. Physical strain was similar by LGBT status.

CONCLUSION: Caregiving itself is universal, yet LGBT caregivers differed demographically and were more likely to report financial strain compared with non-LGBT caregivers.


caregivers, health status, quality of life, psychological stress, sexual minorities, transgender persons

DOI of Published Version



LGBT Health. 2018 Feb/Mar;5(2):112-120. doi: 10.1089/lgbt.2017.0144. Epub 2018 Jan 24. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

LGBT health

PubMed ID


Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed