Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences

Publication Date


Document Type



Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition | Epidemiology | Women's Health


Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (>/=0.165kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.


UMCCTS funding

DOI of Published Version



Appelhans BM, Bleil ME, Waring ME, Schneider KL, Nackers LM, Busch AM, Whited MC, Pagoto SL. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women. Physiol Behav. 2013 Sep 14;122C:129-133. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.09.004. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Physiology and behavior

PubMed ID


Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed