UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry; Systems and Psychosocial Advances Research Center

Publication Date


Document Type



Health Psychology | Preventive Medicine | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology | Substance Abuse and Addiction


This study compared characteristics of Korean American men in two studies: a telephone survey with a random sample of Korean American men who reported daily smoking versus a smoking cessation clinical trial with a convenience sample of Korean American men who reported smoking at least 10 cigarettes a day. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), both studies attempted to explain how much its theoretical variables (attitudes, perceived social norms, and self-efficacy) would explain quit intentions in Korean American men. Participants in the cessation study were less likely to have health insurance coverage (χ2 [2, 271] = 138.31, p = 0.001) than those in the survey study. The cessation group was more likely to smoke in indoor offices (χ2 [1, 231] = 18.09, p = 0.003) and had higher nicotine dependence than the survey group (t269 = 3.32, p = 0.001) but these differences became insignificant when only those who smoked 10 or more cigarettes were compared. Participants in the cessation study had more positive attitudes towards quitting (t267 = 4.99, p < 0.001), stronger perceived social norms favoring quitting (t269 = 5.63, p < 0.001) and greater quit intentions (t268 = 9.86, p < 0.001) at baseline than those in the survey study. Korean American men are more likely to have a quit intention and make a quit attempt when they have more positive and fewer negative attitudes towards quitting and perceive stronger social norms favoring quitting. To motivate Korean American men to quit smoking, clinicians should underscore the immediate health benefits of quitting, promote quitting with cessation aids to reduce perceived risks of quitting in anticipation of withdrawal symptoms, and encourage family members to relate firm anti-smoking messages.


Smoking, Smoking Cessation, Theory of Planned Behavior, Korean

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © 2013 Sun S. Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Kim, S. , Kim, S. , McKay, C. and Ziedonis, D. (2013) Comparison of characteristics among Korean American male smokers between survey and cessation studies. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3, 293-300. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.33040. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Open Journal of Preventive Medicine