Enhancement in cognitive function recovery by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry; Department of Neurology

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Area Under Curve; Brain Injuries; Cognition Disorders; Disease Models, Animal; Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Recovery of Function; Time Factors


Behavioral Neurobiology | Mental and Social Health | Nervous System Diseases | Neurology | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by neuronal damage and commonly, secondary cell death, leading to functional and neurological dysfunction. Despite the recent focus of TBI research on developing therapies, affective therapeutic strategies targeting neuronal death associated with TBI remain underexplored. This study explored the efficacy of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as an intervention for improving cognitive deficits commonly associated with TBI. Although G-CSF has been studied with histological techniques, to date, its effects on functional outcome remain unknown. To this end, we used a closed head injury (CHI) model in Wistar rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups (untreated TBI, G-CSF treated TBI, G-CSF treated Control, Control). The treatment groups were administered subcutaneous injections of G-CSF 30 min (120 mug/kg) and 12 h (60 mug/kg) post-trauma. The Morris Water Maze test was used to measure any treatment-associated changes in cognitive deficits observed in TBI animals at days 2-6 post-injury. Our findings demonstrate a significant improvement in cognitive performance in the G-CSF treated TBI animals within a week of injury, compared to untreated TBI, indicative of immediate and beneficial effect of G-CSF on cognitive performance post CHI. Our model suggests that early G-CSF exposure may be a promising therapeutic approach in recovery of cognitive deficits due to TBI.

DOI of Published Version



Behav Brain Res. 2014 Feb 1;259:354-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.11.008. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Behavioural brain research

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID