Association between median family income and self-reported mood symptoms in bipolar disorder
Department of Psychiatry
Adult; *Affect; Bipolar Disorder; Chi-Square Distribution; Female; Humans; *Income; Male; Socioeconomic Factors
Mental and Social Health | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology
OBJECTIVE: There is broad consensus from epidemiologic research that lower socioeconomic status is related to poorer health. This study investigated the relation between median family income and self-reported mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder who reside in the United States.
METHODS: Two hundred eighty-four patients with bipolar disorder provided daily self-reported mood ratings for 6 months (50,054 days of data). Regardless of income, all patients were treated by a psychiatrist, took psychotropic medications, and participated in computerized self-monitoring throughout the study. Median family income was obtained from US census tract data. The association between income and mood was analyzed using income as both a continuous and categorical variable. Demographic characteristics were compared by income group. Education level was included in the analysis a priori.
RESULTS: Both the continuous and categorical approaches found a positive association between income and euthymia, a negative association between income and manic/hypomanic symptoms including those due to mixed states, and no association between income and depressive symptoms. Patients in the lower-income group spent 12.4% fewer days euthymic than those in the upper-income group and 9.7% fewer days euthymic than those in the middle-income group. Patients in the lower-income group spent 7.1% more days with manic/hypomanic symptoms than those in the upper-income group. There was no association between education and income.
CONCLUSION: Median family income is associated with mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Inclusion of income as a measure of socioeconomic status is recommended for future studies of outcome in bipolar disorder.
DOI of Published Version
Compr Psychiatry. 2011 Jan-Feb;52(1):17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.04.005. Link to article on publisher's site
Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Rasgon, Natalie L.; Marsh, Wendy K.; Sagduyu, Kemal; Munoz, Rodrigo A.; Schmid, Rita; Haack, Sara; and Whybrow, Peter C., "Association between median family income and self-reported mood symptoms in bipolar disorder" (2011). Psychiatry Publications and Presentations. 596.