The validity and reliability of a brief measure of cocaine craving

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry

Publication Date


Document Type



Adult; Affect; Cocaine; Cocaine-Related Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Personality Inventory; Psychometrics; *Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Statistics as Topic; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome




INTRODUCTION: Although craving plays an important role in relapse, there are few brief, valid and reliable instruments to measure the desire to use cocaine in routine clinical practice. The 45-item Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Now (CCQ-Now) is widely used in research, but its length makes its use in everyday clinical work relatively impractical. This study sought to determine the psychometric properties of the CCQ-Brief, a measure composed of 10 items from the CCQ-Now, in treatment-seeking cocaine abusers.

METHOD: Subjects with cocaine abuse or dependence (n=247) completed the CCQ-Brief, the CCQ-Now, the Voris Cocaine Craving Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Addiction Severity Index.

RESULTS: The CCQ-Brief was significantly correlated with the CCQ-Now (r=.85, p<.01), the CCQ-Now with the items in common with the CCQ-Brief removed (r=.78, p<.01), all four subscales of the VCCS (craving intensity: r=.47, p<.01; mood: r=.27, p<.01; energy: r=.30, p<.01; sick feelings: r=.28, p<.01), the BDI-II (r=.39, p<.01), the BAI (r=.35, p<.01) and recent drug use (r=.26, p<.01). The internal consistency of the CCQ-Brief was strong (alpha=.90).

DISCUSSION: The CCQ-Brief is a valid and reliable instrument that can be easily administered as a measure of current cocaine craving.

DOI of Published Version



Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 Jul 27;83(3):233-7. Epub 2005 Dec 27. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Drug and alcohol dependence

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID