Design Features for Employment-Supportive Personal Assistance Services in Medicaid Programs

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Mental Health Services Research; Center for Health Policy and Research

Publication Date


Document Type



Employment; Employment, Supported; Disabled Persons; Medicaid


Health Services Research | Mental and Social Health | Psychiatric and Mental Health | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology


To support the employment of persons with disabilities, state Medicaid programs are allowed to offer personal assistance services (PAS) at work as well as at home. These employment-supportive personal assistance services (EPAS) can be used to help persons with disabilities obtain or retain employment. This article explores Medicaid-funded EPAS through examination of programs in seven states and analysis of results from PAS user focus groups and employer interviews. Medicaid policy recommendations include: link EPAS with existing PAS programs in Medicaid state plans or waivers, distinguish EPAS from job- or task-related assistance that is the responsibility of the employer, and specify explicit coverage for personal care services at home, at the work site, and for work-related transportation.

DOI of Published Version



Marsha Langer Ellison, Raymond E. Glazier, Elizabeth O'Connell, Giulia Norton, Jay Himmelstein. Design Features for Employment-Supportive Personal Assistance Services in Medicaid Programs. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, September 2010, 21: 90-100, first published on May 26, 2010. doi:10.1177/1044207310370682

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of Disability Policy Studies