A pilot study of nadolol for overt aggression in developmentally delayed individuals

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine; Department of Psychiatry

Publication Date


Document Type



Adolescent; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Adult; Aggression; Child; Developmental Disabilities; Humans; Male; Nadolol; Pilot Projects; Prospective Studies; Treatment Outcome


Behavioral Disciplines and Activities | Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Preventive Medicine


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this preliminary pilot study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of open-label nadolol as an adjunctive pharmacological treatment for aggression and/or inattention/overactivity in a developmentally delayed child, adolescent, and young adult population.

METHOD: Twelve subjects enrolled and completed (mean age 13.8 years, range 9 through 24) a 5-month, open, prospective protocol of nadolol (mean dose 109 mg, range 30 through 220 mg) with systematic baseline and outcome evaluations and weekly clinical assessment.

RESULTS: All subjects were developmentally delayed and most were cognitively delayed. Ten subjects (83%) showed clinical improvement while receiving nadolol. Significant improvements were noted on observer-rated overt categorical aggression, severity of illness, and global impressions of improvement. No significant effects were found for inattention/overactivity. Nadolol was well tolerated, with few side effects.

CONCLUSIONS: Overt categorical aggression presenting in developmentally delayed children, adolescents, and young adults may respond to nadolol treatment.


J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Jun;36(6):826-34.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID