Elevated Depressive Symptoms, Antidepressant Use, and Diabetes in a Large Multiethnic National Sample of Postmenopausal Women

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Postmenopause; Depression; Antidepressive Agents; Diabetes Mellitus; Women's Health


Behavioral Disciplines and Activities | Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Mental Disorders | Preventive Medicine | Women's Health


OBJECTIVE To examine elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use in relation to diabetes incidence in the Women’s Health Initiative.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 161,808 postmenopausal women were followed for over an average of 7.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) estimating the effects of elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use on newly diagnosed incident diabetes were obtained using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for known diabetes risk factors.

RESULTS Multivariable-adjusted HRs indicated an increased risk of incident diabetes with elevated baseline depressive symptoms (HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.08–1.21]) and antidepressant use (1.20 [1.09–1.32]). These associations persisted in year 3 data, in which respective adjusted HRs were 1.23 (1.09–1.39) and 1.31 (1.14–1.50).

CONCLUSIONS Postmenopausal women with elevated depressive symptoms and who use antidepressants have a greater risk of developing incident diabetes. In addition, longstanding elevated depressive symptoms and recent antidepressant medication use increase the risk of incident diabetes.

DOI of Published Version



Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov;34(11):2390-2. Epub 2011 Sep 12. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-1223. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Diabetes Care

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID