Proximity among distant regulatory elements at the beta-globin locus requires GATA-1 and FOG-1

UMMS Affiliation

Program in Gene Function and Expression

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Base Sequence; Binding Sites; Carrier Proteins; Cell Line; DNA; DNA-Binding Proteins; Enhancer Elements, Genetic; Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors; GATA1 Transcription Factor; *Genes, Regulator; Globins; Humans; Locus Control Region; Mice; Mice, Mutant Strains; Nuclear Proteins; Nucleic Acid Conformation; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Protein Binding; RNA Polymerase II; Transcription Factors


Genetics and Genomics


Recent evidence suggests that long-range enhancers and gene promoters are in close proximity, which might reflect the formation of chromatin loops. Here, we examined the mechanism for DNA looping at the beta-globin locus. By using chromosome conformation capture (3C), we show that the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 and its cofactor FOG-1 are required for the physical interaction between the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) and the beta-major globin promoter. Kinetic studies reveal that GATA-1-induced loop formation correlates with the onset of beta-globin transcription and occurs independently of new protein synthesis. GATA-1 occupies the beta-major globin promoter normally in fetal liver erythroblasts from mice lacking the LCR, suggesting that GATA-1 binding to the promoter and LCR are independent events that occur prior to loop formation. Together, these data demonstrate that GATA-1 and FOG-1 are essential anchors for a tissue-specific chromatin loop, providing general insights into long-range enhancer function.

DOI of Published Version



Mol Cell. 2005 Feb 4;17(3):453-62. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Molecular cell

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID