Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium
Peter L. Jones, University of Massachusetts Medical School

Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

Peter Jones was a collaborator in the Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium.

At the time of publication, Peter Jones was not yet affiliated with the University of Massachusetts Medical School.


Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. Furthermore, A. mellifera has fewer genes for innate immunity, detoxification enzymes, cuticle-forming proteins and gustatory receptors, more genes for odorant receptors, and novel genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population genetics suggests a novel African origin for the species A. mellifera and insights into whether Africanized bees spread throughout the New World via hybridization or displacement.