UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Genes and Development; Zhang Lab

Publication Date


Document Type



Cell Biology | Molecular Biology | Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering


Majority of disease-modifying therapeutic targets are restricted to the intracellular space and are therefore not druggable using existing biologic modalities. The ability to efficiently deliver macromolecules inside target cells or tissues would greatly expand the current landscape of therapeutic targets for future generations of biologic drugs, but remains challenging. Here we report the use of extracellular vesicles, known as arrestin domain containing protein 1 [ARRDC1]-mediated microvesicles (ARMMs), for packaging and intracellular delivery of a myriad of macromolecules, including the tumor suppressor p53 protein, RNAs, and the genome-editing CRISPR-Cas9/guide RNA complex. We demonstrate selective recruitment of these macromolecules into ARMMs. When delivered intracellularly via ARMMs, these macromolecules are biologically active in recipient cells. P53 delivered via ARMMs induces DNA damage-dependent apoptosis in multiple tissues in mice. Together, our results provide proof-of-principle demonstration that ARMMs represent a highly versatile platform for packaging and intracellular delivery of therapeutic macromolecules.


Molecular engineering, Protein delivery

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © The Author(s) 2018. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit

DOI of Published Version



Nat Commun. 2018 Mar 6;9(1):960. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03390-x. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Nature communications

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.