Identification of ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in residual viremia during recombinant HIV-1 poxvirus immunizations in patients with clinically undetectable viral loads on durable suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pediatrics



Document Type


Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Anti-Retroviral Agents; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Cohort Studies; Female; Genotype; HIV Infections; HIV-1; Humans; Immunization; Male; Poxviridae; Sequence Analysis, DNA


Immunology and Infectious Disease | Pediatrics


In most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who achieve viral loads of /ml during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low levels of plasma virus remain detectable for years by ultrasensitive methods. The relative contributions of ongoing virus replication and virus production from HIV-1 reservoirs to persistent low-level viremia during HAART remain controversial. HIV-1 vaccination of HAART-treated individuals provides a model for examining low-level viremia, as immunizations may facilitate virus replication and sequence evolution. In a phase 1 trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara/fowlpox virus-based HIV-1 vaccines in 20 HIV-infected young adults receiving HAART, we assessed the prevalence of low-level viremia and sequence evolution, using ultrasensitive viral load (


Citation: J Virol. 2009 Oct;83(19):9731-42. Epub 2009 Jul 15. Link to article on publisher's website

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