UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pediatrics

Publication Date


Document Type



Cell Line; Colostrum; Female; Gene Expression; Humans; Interferon-gamma; Macrophages; Membrane Glycoproteins; Monocytes; NADPH Oxidase; Pregnancy; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha


Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Cell Biology | Hematology | Oncology | Pediatrics


The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on NADPH oxidase activity and gp91-phox gene expression in human colostrum macrophages (CM), peripheral blood monocytes (PBM), and myelomonocytic THP-1 cells. We also investigated the effect of IFN-gamma on the release of TNF-alpha by these cells. Our results show that under basal culture conditions, CM release more superoxide than PBM and THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05). The addition of IFN-gamma, alone or in combination with TNF-alpha, increased spontaneous superoxide release by PBM and THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05) and increased phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated superoxide release by CM, PBM, and THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05). The NADPH oxidase activity of THP-1 cells consistently remained lower than that of CM or PBM, despite a dramatic response to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Under basal conditions, gp91-phox gene expression was significantly higher in CM and PBM compared with THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05). The addition of IFN-gamma alone or in combination with TNF-alpha caused a dramatic increase in gp91-phox gene expression in THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05) but not in CM or PBM. Under basal conditions or in the presence of IFN-gamma, CM released more TNF-alpha than PBM or THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05). In addition, PBM released more TNF-gamma than THP-1 cells (p andlt; 0.05). IFN-gamma did not significantly augment the release of TNF-alpha by these cells (p > 0.05). Thus, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha induced equivalent gp91-phox gene expression in THP-1 cells compared with CM or PBM but did not bring about equivalent NADPH oxidase activity. TNF-alpha release was higher in more mature cells. This partial divergence of gp91- phox gene expression, NADPH oxidase activity, and TNF-alpha release is probably a consequence of different events of myeloid cell biology and relates at least in part to cell differentiation state.

Rights and Permissions

This is a copy of an article published in the Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research © 2005 copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and available online at:

DOI of Published Version



J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005 Sep;25(9):540-6. doi: 10.1089/jir.2005.25.540. Link to article on publisher's website

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of interferon and cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.