Department of Pediatrics; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology
Vitamin D; Cardiovascular Diseases; Child; Biological Markers
Cardiovascular Diseases | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Pediatrics
Background: The associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and related markers of early cardiovascular disease (CVD) are unclear in prepubertal children.
Objective: To investigate the association of 25(OH)D with markers of CVD. The hypothesis was that 25(OH)D would vary inversely with non-HDL-C.
Subjects and methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of children (n=45; 26 males, 19 females) of mean age 8.3 ± 2.5 years to investigate the relationships between 25(OH)D and glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipids. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D/mL; overweight as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85 th but <95th >percentile; and obesity as BMI >95th percentile.
Results: Twenty subjects (44.4%) had BMI30 ng/mL. Patients with 25(OH)D of/mL had significantly elevated non-HDL-C (136.08 ± 44.66 vs. 109.88 ± 28.25, p=0.025), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio (3.89 ± 1.20 vs. 3.21 ± 0.83, p=0.042), and triglycerides (TG) (117.09 ± 71.27 vs. 73.39 ± 46.53, p=0.024), while those with 25(OH)D of >30 ng/mL had significantly lower non-HDL-C, TC/HDL, TG, and LDL (82.40 ± 18.03 vs. 105.15 ± 28.38, p=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D and non-HDL cholesterol (β=-0.337, p=0.043), and TC/HDL ratio (β=-0.339, p=0.028), and LDL (β=-0.359, p=0.016), after adjusting for age, race, sex, BMI, and seasonality.
Conclusions: Vitamin D varied inversely with non-HDL, TC/HDL, and LDL. A 25(OH)D level of 30 ng/mL is associated with optimal cardioprotection in children.
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DOI of Published Version
Nwosu BU, Maranda L, Cullen K, Ciccarelli C, Lee MM. Vitamin D status is associated with early markers of cardiovascular disease in prepubertal children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(11-12):1067-75. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2013-0086. The final publication is available at www.degruyter.com. Link to article on publisher's website
Journal of pediatric endocrinology and metabolism : JPEM
Nwosu, Benjamin U.; Maranda, Louise; Cullen, Karen; Ciccarelli, Carol A.; and Lee, Mary M., "Vitamin D status is associated with early markers of cardiovascular disease in prepubertal children" (2013). Endocrinology/Diabetes. 42.