Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics; Diabetes Division, Department of Medicine; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
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The authors received no specific funding for this work.
type 1 diabetes, cholesterol, LDL, lipids, children
Importance: Landmark studies showed that partial clinical remission in new-onset type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced prevalence of long-term complications, but early clinical indicators of this favorable outcome are poorly characterized.
Aim: To determine if there were any differences in lipid parameters, especially LDL-cholesterol, between remitters and non-remitters 4 to 5 years after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes after controlling for hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and pubertal status.
Subjects and Methods: A longitudinal retrospective cohort study of 123 subjects of mean age 11.9 ± 2.9 years, [male 11.7 ± 2.9 years, (n=55); female 12.0 ± 2.9 years, (n=68), p=0.60] with type 1 diabetes of 4-5 years duration. Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the 4th or 5th year after diagnosis in line with the American Diabetes Association recommendation to initiate screening for complications in children either at the beginning of puberty or 4-5 years after diagnosis. Puberty was defined by Tanner stages II-V. Partial clinical remission was defined by the gold-standard insulin-dose adjusted hemoglobin A1c (IDAA1c) of ≤9.
Results: There were 44 (35.8%) remitters (age 13.0 ± 2.5y; male 52.3%). Both the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower in remitters compared to non-remitters: LDL-C: 78.8 ± 28.7 mg/dL vs. 91.6 ± 26.5 mg/dL, p=0.023; and total cholesterol: 151.5 ± 32.6 mg/dL vs. 167.0 ± 29.6 mg/dL, p=0.015. Other lipid fractions were similar between the groups. There were no differences between the groups for glycemic control, body mass index z score, thyroid function, celiac disease occurrence, or vitamin D status. Though a greater number of remitters were in puberty compared to non-remitters (86.4% vs. 60.8%, p=0.006), LDL-C concentration was similar in prepubertal remitters vs. non-remitters (p=0.93), but was significantly lower in remitters in puberty compared to non-remitters in puberty (p=0.018) after adjusting for age and duration of diabetes.
Conclusions: Children with type 1 diabetes who underwent a honeymoon phase had significantly lower LDL cholesterol 5 years after diagnosis regardless of their age, glycemic control, adiposity, or pubertal status. This early divergence in lipidemia may explain the dichotomy in the prevalence of long-term complication in type 1 diabetes between remitters and non-remitters. It also offers a pathway for targeted lipid monitoring in type 1 diabetes, by establishing non-remission as a non-modifiable risk factor for vascular complication in type 1 diabetes.
The legend for codes used in this dataset is available under "Additional Files."
Nwosu BU, Zhang B, Ayyoub SS, Choi S, Villalobos-Ortiz TR, Alonso LC, Barton BA. (2018). Data from: Children with type 1 diabetes who experienced a honeymoon phase had significantly lower LDL cholesterol 5 years after diagnosis. Pediatric Research Data. https://doi.org/10.13028/M2FT3K. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/pediatrics_data/6
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.xlsx (9.6 MB)