UMMS Affiliation

Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology

Publication Date


Document Type



Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Endocrine System Diseases | Microbiology | Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering | Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases


Exosomes are nano-vesicles of endosomal origin inherited with characteristics of drug delivery and cargo loading. Exosomes offer a diverse range of opportunities that can be exploited in the treatment of various diseases post-functionalization. This membrane engineering is recently being used in the management of bacteria-associated diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most crippling disease of society with a large share of its imposing economic burden. DM in a chronic state is associated with the development of micro- and macrovascular complications. DFU is among the diabetic microvascular complications with the consequent occurrence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived exosomes post-tailoring hold promise to accelerate the diabetic wound repair in DFU associated with bacterial inhabitant. These exosomes promote the antibacterial properties with regenerative activity by loading bioactive molecules like growth factors, nucleic acids, and proteins, and non-bioactive substances like antibiotics. Functionalization of MSC-derived exosomes is mediated by various physical, chemical, and biological processes that effectively load the desired cargo into the exosomes for targeted delivery at specific bacterial DFUs and wound. The present study focused on the application of the cargo-loaded exosomes in the treatment of DFU and also emphasizes the different approaches for loading the desired cargo/drug inside exosomes. However, more studies and clinical trials are needed in the domain to explore this membrane engineering.


bacterial infection, customized exosomes, diabetes foot ulcers, diabetes mellitus, exosomes

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © 2021 Raghav, Tripathi, Mishra, Jeong, Banday, Gautam, Mateen, Singh, Singh, Singla and Ahmad. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

DOI of Published Version



Raghav A, Tripathi P, Mishra BK, Jeong GB, Banday S, Gautam KA, Mateen QN, Singh P, Singh M, Singla A, Ahmad J. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Tailored Exosomes Treat Bacteria-Associated Diabetes Foot Ulcers: A Customized Approach From Bench to Bed. Front Microbiol. 2021 Jul 27;12:712588. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.712588. PMID: 34385994; PMCID: PMC8354005. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Frontiers in microbiology

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.