UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Biomedical Devices and Instrumentation | Cardiology | Health Information Technology


BACKGROUND: When studied in community-based samples, the association of physical activity with blood pressure (BP) remains controversial and is perhaps dependent on the intensity of physical activity. Prior studies have not explored the association of smartwatch-measured physical activity with home BP.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association of habitual physical activity with home BP.

METHODS: Consenting electronic Framingham Heart Study (eFHS) participants were provided with a study smartwatch (Apple Watch Series 0) and Bluetooth-enabled home BP cuff. Participants were instructed to wear the watch daily and transmit BP values weekly. We measured habitual physical activity as the average daily step count determined by the smartwatch. We estimated the cross-sectional association between physical activity and average home BP using linear mixed effects models adjusting for age, sex, wear time, antihypertensive drug use, and familial structure.

RESULTS: We studied 660 eFHS participants (mean age 53 years, SD 9 years; 387 [58.6%] women; 602 [91.2%] White) who wore the smartwatch 5 or more hours per day for 30 or more days and transmitted three or more BP readings. The mean daily step count was 7595 (SD 2718). The mean home systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) were 122 (SD 12) and 76 (SD 8). Every 1000 increase in the step count was associated with a 0.49 mmHg lower home systolic BP (P=.004) and 0.36 mmHg lower home diastolic BP (P=.003). The association, however, was attenuated and became statistically nonsignificant with further adjustment for BMI.

CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based sample of adults, higher daily habitual physical activity measured by a smartwatch was associated with a moderate, but statistically significant, reduction in home BP. Differences in BMI among study participants accounted for the majority of the observed association.


Apple Watch, eCohort, home blood pressure, hypertension, physical activity, primary prevention, smartwatch

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Copyright © Mayank Sardana, Honghuang Lin, Yuankai Zhang, Chunyu Liu, Ludovic Trinquart, Emelia J Benjamin, Emily S Manders, Kelsey Fusco, Jelena Kornej, Michael M Hammond, Nicole Spartano, Chathurangi H Pathiravasan, Vik Kheterpal, Christopher Nowak, Belinda Borrelli, Joanne M Murabito, David D McManus. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 24.06.2021. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

DOI of Published Version



Sardana M, Lin H, Zhang Y, Liu C, Trinquart L, Benjamin EJ, Manders ES, Fusco K, Kornej J, Hammond MM, Spartano N, Pathiravasan CH, Kheterpal V, Nowak C, Borrelli B, Murabito JM, McManus DD. Association of Habitual Physical Activity With Home Blood Pressure in the Electronic Framingham Heart Study (eFHS): Cross-sectional Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jun 24;23(6):e25591. doi: 10.2196/25591. PMID: 34185019; PMCID: PMC8277303. Link to article on publisher's site

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Journal of medical Internet research


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.