UMMS Affiliation

Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology

Publication Date


Document Type



Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Cancer Biology | Enzymes and Coenzymes | Neoplasms | Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides | Respiratory Tract Diseases


THeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNP) A1 is the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed member of the HNRNP protein family. In recent years, it has become more evident that HNRNP A1 contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the underlying role of HNRNP A1 in cancer development. Here, we report that HNRNP A1 expression is significantly increased in lung cancer tissues and is negatively correlated with the overall survival of patients with lung cancer. Additionally, HNRNP A1 positively regulates vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) translation via binding directly to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of VRK1 mRNA, thus increasing cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression by VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Furthermore, HNRNP A1 binding to the cis-acting region of the 3'UTR of VRK1 mRNA contributes to increased lung cancer cell proliferation. Thus, our study unveils a novel role of HNRNP A1 in lung carcinogenesis via post-transcriptional regulation of VRK1 expression and suggests its potential as a therapeutic target for patients with lung cancer.


3′UTR, HNRNP A1, VRK1, lung cancer, post-transcriptional regulation

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Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

DOI of Published Version



Ryu HG, Jung Y, Lee N, Seo JY, Kim SW, Lee KH, Kim DY, Kim KT. HNRNP A1 Promotes Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation by Modulating VRK1 Translation. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 May 23;22(11):5506. doi: 10.3390/ijms22115506. PMID: 34071140; PMCID: PMC8197126. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

International journal of molecular sciences

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.