UMMS Affiliation

Horae Gene Therapy Center, Department of Pediatrics

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Molecular Biology | Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides | Therapeutics


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a family of short non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that are produced in a tissue and time-specific manner to orchestrate gene expression post-transcription. MiRNAs hybridize to target mRNA(s) to induce translation repression or mRNA degradation. Functional studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are engaged in virtually every physiological process and, consequently, miRNA dysregulations have been linked to multiple human pathologies. Thus, miRNA mimics and anti-miRNAs that restore miRNA expression or downregulate aberrantly expressed miRNAs, respectively, are highly sought-after therapeutic strategies for effective manipulation of miRNA levels. In this regard, carrier vehicles that facilitate proficient and safe delivery of miRNA-based therapeutics are fundamental to the clinical success of these pharmaceuticals. Here, we highlight the strengths and weaknesses of current state-of-the-art viral and non-viral miRNA delivery systems and provide perspective on how these tools can be exploited to improve the outcomes of miRNA-based therapeutics.


miRNA, miRNA delivery, miRNA therapeutics, non-viral vectors, viral vectors

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Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

DOI of Published Version



Dasgupta I, Chatterjee A. Recent Advances in miRNA Delivery Systems. Methods Protoc. 2021 Jan 20;4(1):10. doi: 10.3390/mps4010010. PMID: 33498244; PMCID: PMC7839010. Link to article on publisher's site

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Methods and protocols

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.