UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Pulmonology | Respiratory Tract Diseases | Virus Diseases | Viruses


BACKGROUND: While tuberculosis is considered a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a restrictive pattern of pulmonary impairment may actually be more common among tuberculosis survivors. We aimed to determine the nature of pulmonary impairment before and after treatment among people with HIV and tuberculosis and identify risk factors for long-term impairment.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study conducted in South Africa, we enrolled adults newly diagnosed with HIV and tuberculosis who were initiating antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment. We measured lung function and symptoms at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We compared participants with and without pulmonary impairment and constructed logistic regression models to identify characteristics associated with pulmonary impairment.

RESULTS: Among 134 participants with a median CD4 count of 110 cells/mul, 112 (83%) completed baseline spirometry at which time 32 (29%) had restriction, 13 (12%) had obstruction, and 9 (7%) had a mixed pattern. Lung function was dynamic over time and 30 (33%) participants had impaired lung function at 12 months. Baseline restriction was associated with greater symptoms and with long-term pulmonary impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.44, 95% confidence interval 1.16-25.45), while baseline obstruction was not (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 0.28-13.78).

CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of people with HIV and tuberculosis, restriction was the most common, symptomatic, and persistent pattern of pulmonary impairment. These data can help to raise awareness among clinicians about the heterogeneity of post-tuberculosis pulmonary impairment, and highlight the need for further research into mediators of lung injury in this vulnerable population.


HIV, Pulmonary disease, Respiratory function tests, Tuberculosis

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© The Author(s) 2020. Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

DOI of Published Version



Auld SC, Kornfeld H, Maenetje P, Mlotshwa M, Chase W, Vangu MD, Torigian DA, Wallis RS, Churchyard G, Bisson GP. Pulmonary restriction predicts long-term pulmonary impairment in people with HIV and tuberculosis. BMC Pulm Med. 2021 Jan 7;21(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12890-020-01368-4. PMID: 33413293; PMCID: PMC7791797. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

BMC pulmonary medicine

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PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.