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Department of Family Medicine and Community Health

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Clinical Trials | Pulmonology | Race and Ethnicity | Respiratory Tract Diseases


BACKGROUND: Asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality disproportionately impact African American/Black (AA/B) and Hispanic/Latinx (H/L) communities. Adherence to daily inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), recommended by asthma guidelines in all but the mildest cases of asthma, is generally poor. As-needed ICS has shown promise as a patient-empowering asthma management strategy, but it has not been rigorously studied in AA/B or H/L patients or in a real-world setting.

Design and Aim: The PeRson EmPowered Asthma RElief (PREPARE) Study is a randomized, open-label, pragmatic study which aims to assess whether a patient-guided, reliever-triggered ICS strategy called PARTICS (Patient-Activated Reliever-Triggered Inhaled CorticoSteroid) can improve asthma outcomes in AA/B and H/L adult patient populations. In designing and implementing the study, the PREPARE research team has relied heavily on advice from AA/B and H/L Patient Partners and other stakeholders.

Methods: PREPARE is enrolling 1200 adult participants (600 AA/Bs, 600H/Ls) with asthma. Participants are randomized to PARTICS + Usual Care (intervention) versus Usual Care (control). Following a single in-person enrollment visit, participants complete monthly questionnaires for 15 months. The primary endpoint is annualized asthma exacerbation rate. Secondary endpoints include asthma control; preference-based quality of life; and days lost from work, school, or usual activities.

Discussion: The PREPARE study features a pragmatic design allowing for the real-world assessment of a patient-centered, reliever-triggered ICS strategy in AA/B and H/L patients. Outcomes of this study have the potential to offer powerful evidence supporting PARTICS as an effective asthma management strategy in patient populations that suffer disproportionately from asthma morbidity and mortality.


African American, Asthma, Exacerbations, Hispanic, Patient-centered, Pragmatic trial

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© 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

DOI of Published Version



Israel E, Cardet JC, Carroll JK, Fuhlbrigge AL, Pace WD, Maher NE, She L, Rockhold FW, Fagan M, Forth VE, Hernandez PA, Manning BK, Rodriguez-Louis J, Shields JB, Coyne-Beasley T, Kaplan BM, Rand CS, Morales-Cosme W, Wechsler ME, Wisnivesky JP, White M, Yawn BP, McKee MD, Busse PJ, Kaelber DC, Nazario S, Hernandez ML, Apter AJ, Chang KL, Pinto-Plata V, Stranges PM, Hurley LP, Trevor J, Casale TB, Chupp G, Riley IL, Shenoy K, Pasarica M, Calderon-Candelario RA, Tapp H, Baydur A. A randomized, open-label, pragmatic study to assess reliever-triggered inhaled corticosteroid in African American/Black and Hispanic/Latinx adults with asthma: Design and methods of the PREPARE trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2020 Dec 11;101:106246. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2020.106246. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33316456. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Contemporary clinical trials


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.