UMMS Affiliation

Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Hematology | Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases | Neoplasms | Oncology


There is a lack of large comparative study on the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) and fludarabine/melphalan (FM) regimens. Adult AML patients from Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received first RIC allo-transplant between 2001 and 2015 were studied. Patients were excluded if they received cord blood or identical twin transplant, total body irradiation in conditioning, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with in vitro T-cell depletion. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS), secondary end points were leukemia-free survival (LFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and GVHD. Multivariate survival model was used with adjustment for patient, leukemia, and transplant-related factors. A total of 622 patients received FM and 791 received FB RIC. Compared with FB, the FM group had fewer transplant in complete remission (CR), fewer matched sibling donors, and less usage of anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. More patients in the FM group received marrow grafts and had transplantation before 2005. OS was significantly lower within the first 3 months posttransplant in the FM group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.82, P < .001), but was marginally superior beyond 3 months (HR = 0.87, P = .05). LFS was better with FM compared with FB (HR = 0.89, P = .05). NRM was significantly increased in the FM group during the first 3 months of posttransplant (HR = 3.85, P < .001). Long-term relapse was lower with FM (HR = 0.65, P < .001). Analysis restricted to patients with CR showed comparable results. In conclusion, compared with FB, the FM RIC showed a marginally superior long-term OS and LFS and a lower relapse rate. A lower OS early posttransplant within 3 months was largely the result of a higher early NRM.


Clinical Trials and Observations, Transplantation, busulfan, conditioning (psychology), follicular bronchiolitis, foreign bodies, graft-versus-host disease, leukemia, leukemia, myelocytic, acute, melphalan, transplantation, surrogate endpoints

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Zhou Z, Nath R, Cerny J, Wang HL, Zhang MJ, Abdel-Azim H, Agrawal V, Ahmed G, Al-Homsi AS, Aljurf M, Alkhateeb HB, Assal A, Bacher U, Bajel A, Bashir Q, Battiwalla M, Bhatt VR, Byrne M, Cahn JY, Cairo M, Choe H, Copelan E, Cutler C, Damlaj MB, DeFilipp Z, De Lima M, Diaz MA, Farhadfar N, Foran J, Freytes CO, Gerds AT, Gergis U, Grunwald MR, Gul Z, Hamadani M, Hashmi S, Hertzberg M, Hildebrandt GC, Hossain N, Inamoto Y, Isola L, Jain T, Kamble RT, Khan MW, Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Kebriaei P, Kekre N, Khera N, Lazarus HM, Liesveld JL, Litzow M, Liu H, Marks DI, Martino R, Mathews V, Mishra A, Murthy HS, Nagler A, Nakamura R, Nathan S, Nishihori T, Olin R, Olsson RF, Palmisiano N, Patel SS, Patnaik MM, Pawarode A, Perales MA, Politikos I, Popat U, Rizzieri D, Sandmaier BM, Savani BN, Seo S, Shah NN, Uy GL, Valcárcel D, Verdonck LF, Waller EK, Wang Y, Weisdorf D, Wirk B, Wong E, Yared JA, Saber W. Reduced intensity conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia using melphalan- vs busulfan-based regimens: a CIBMTR report. Blood Adv. 2020 Jul 14;4(13):3180-3190. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001266. PMID: 32663298; PMCID: PMC7362362. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Blood advances


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

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