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Laboratory of Molecular Imaging Probes, Department of Radiology

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Biochemical and Biomolecular Engineering | Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Medicinal-Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering | Nanomedicine | Pharmaceutics and Drug Design | Therapeutics


The use of various oligonucleotide (ON) syntheses and post-synthetic strategies for targeted chemical modification enables improving their efficacy as potent modulators of gene expression levels in eukaryotic cells. However, the search still continues for new approaches designed for increasing internalization, lysosomal escape, and tissue specific delivery of ON. In this review we emphasized all aspects related to the synthesis and properties of ON derivatives carrying multifluorinated (MF) groups. These MF groups have unique physico-chemical properties because of their simultaneous hydrophobicity and lipophobicity. Such unusual combination of properties results in the overall modification of ON mode of interaction with the cells and making multi-fluorination highly relevant to the goal of improving potency of ON as components of new therapies. The accumulated evidence so far is pointing to high potential of ON probes, RNAi components and ON imaging beacons carrying single or multiple MF groups for improving the stability, specificity of interaction with biological targets and delivery of ONs in vitro and potentially in vivo.


drug delivery, fluorescence, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, oligonucleotide, perfluorinated, sensor

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© The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (

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Metelev VG, Bogdanov AA Jr. Synthesis and applications of theranostic oligonucleotides carrying multiple fluorine atoms. Theranostics. 2020 Jan 1;10(3):1391-1414. doi: 10.7150/thno.37936. PMID: 31938071; PMCID: PMC6956824. Link to article on publisher's site

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.