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Department of Quantitative Health Sciences

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Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Health Services Administration | Inequality and Stratification | International Public Health | Pediatrics


There has been no report on the situation of socioeconomic inequalities in the full vaccination coverage among Vietnamese children. This study aims to assess the trends and changes in the socioeconomic inequalities in the full vaccination coverage among Vietnamese children aged 12-23 months from 2000 to 2014. Data were drawn from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (2000, 2006, 2011, and 2014). Concentration index (CCI) and concentration curve (CC) were applied to quantify the degree of the socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage. The prevalence of children fully receiving recommended vaccines was significantly improved during 2000-2014, yet, was still not being covered. The total CCI of full vaccination coverage gradually decreased from 2000 to 2014 (CCI: from 0.241 to 0.009). The CC increasingly became close to the equality line through the survey period, indicating the increasingly narrow gap in child full immunization amongst the poor and the rich. Vietnam witnessed a sharp decrease in socioeconomic inequality in the full vaccination coverage for over a decade. The next policies towards children from vulnerable populations (ethnic minority groups, living in rural areas, and having a mother with low education) belonging to lower socioeconomic groups may mitigate socioeconomic inequalities in full vaccination coverage.


Vietnam, children aged 12–23 months, full vaccination coverage, socioeconomic inequalities

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© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

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Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Nov 18;7(4). pii: E188. doi: 10.3390/vaccines7040188. Link to article on publisher's site

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.