UMMS Affiliation

Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems; Program in Molecular Medicine

Publication Date

2019-05-27

Document Type

Article

Disciplines

Digestive System | Nervous System | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology | Psychological Phenomena and Processes

Abstract

Hookworms are one of the most prevalent and important parasites, infecting ~500 million people worldwide. Hookworm disease is among the leading causes of iron-deficiency anemia in the developing world and is associated with significant growth stunting and malnutrition. In humans, hookworms appear to impair memory and other forms of cognition, although definitive data are hard to come by. Here we study the impact of a human hookworm parasite, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, on cognition in hamsters in a controlled laboratory setting. We developed tests that measure long-term memory in hamsters. We find that hookworm-infected hamsters were fully capable of detecting a novel object. However, hookworm-infected hamsters were impaired in detecting a displaced object. Defects could be discerned at even at low levels of infection, whereas at higher levels of infection, hamsters were statistically unable to distinguish between displaced and non-displaced objects. These spatial memory deficiencies could not be attributed to defects in infected hamster mobility or to lack of interest. We also found that hookworm infection resulted in reproducible reductions in diversity and changes in specific taxanomic groups in the hamster gut microbiome. These data demonstrate that human hookworm infection in a laboratory mammal results in a specific, rapid, acute, and measurable deficit in spatial memory, and we speculate that gut alterations could play some role in these cognitive deficits. Our findings highlight the importance of hookworm elimination and suggest that finer tuned spatial memory studies be carried out in humans.

Keywords

hookworms, hookworm infection, memory, cognition, microbiome

Rights and Permissions

Copyright © The Author(s) 2019. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

DOI of Published Version

10.1038/s41598-019-44301-4

Source

Sci Rep. 2019 May 27;9(1):7868. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-44301-4. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Scientific reports

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID

31133690

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Share

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.