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Program in Molecular Medicine

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Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Animal Experimentation and Research | Hemic and Immune Systems | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Nervous System | Virology | Viruses


Macrophage (mac)-tropic human immnunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immnunodeficiency virus (SIV) in brain are associated with neurological disease. Mac-tropic HIV-1 evolves enhanced CD4 interactions that enable macrophage infection via CD4, which is in low abundance. In contrast, mac-tropic SIV is associated with CD4-independent infection via direct CCR5 binding. Recently, mac-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) from macaque brain was also reported to infect cells via CCR5 without CD4. Since SHIV envelope proteins (Envs) are derived from HIV-1, we tested more than 100 HIV-1 clade B Envs for infection of CD4-negative, CCR5(+) Cf2Th/CCR5 cells. However, no infection was detected. Our data suggest that there are differences in the evolution of mac-tropism in SIV and SHIV compared to HIV-1 clade B due to enhanced interactions with CCR5 and CD4, respectively.

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© The Author(s) 2018. Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

DOI of Published Version



Arch Virol. 2019 Feb;164(2):473-482. doi: 10.1007/s00705-018-4094-1. Epub 2018 Nov 10. Link to article on publisher's site

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Archives of virology

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.