UMMS Affiliation

Department of Pathology

Publication Date


Document Type



Hemic and Immune Systems | Immunity | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Immunopathology | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms | Pathology | Viruses


The primary function of the immune system is to protect the host from invading pathogens. In response, microbial pathogens have developed various strategies to evade detection and destruction by the immune system. This tug-of-war between the host and the pathogen is a powerful force that shapes organismal evolution. Regulated cell death (RCD) is a host response that limits the reservoir for intracellular pathogens such as viruses. Since pathogen-specific T cell and B cell responses typically take several days and is therefore slow-developing, RCD of infected cells during the first few days of the infection is critical for organismal survival. This innate immune response not only restricts viral replication, but also serves to promote anti-viral inflammation through cell death-associated release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In recent years, necroptosis has been recognized as an important response against many viruses. The central adaptor for necroptosis, RIPK3, also exerts anti-viral effects through cell death-independent activities such as promoting cytokine gene expression. Here, we will discuss recent advances on how viruses counteract this host defense mechanism and the effect of necroptosis on the anti-viral inflammatory reaction.

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Copyright © ADMC Associazione Differenziamento e Morte Cellulare 2018. Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit

DOI of Published Version



Cell Death Differ. 2019 Jan;26(1):4-13. doi: 10.1038/s41418-018-0172-x. Epub 2018 Jul 26. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Cell death and differentiation

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.