UMMS Affiliation

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Outcomes Measurement Science

Publication Date


Document Type



Clinical Epidemiology | Epidemiology | Health Services Research | Neoplasms | Statistics and Probability


OBJECTIVE: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 health-related quality of life questionnaire is one of the most widely used cancer-specific health-related quality of life questionnaires worldwide. General population norm data can facilitate the interpretation of QLQ-C30 data obtained from cancer patients. This study aimed at systematically collecting norm data from the general population to develop European QLQ-C30 norm scores and to generate comparable norm data for individual countries in Europe and North America.

METHODS: We collected QLQ-C30 data from the general population across 11 European Union (EU) countries, Russia, Turkey, Canada and United States (n > /= 1000/country). Representative samples were stratified by sex and age groups (18-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and > /= 70 years). After applying weights based on the United Nations population distribution statistics, we calculated QLQ-C30 domain scores to generate a 'European QLQ-C30 Norm' based on the EU countries. Further, we calculated QLQ-C30 norm scores for all 15 individual countries.

RESULTS: A total of 15,386 respondents completed the online survey. For the EU sample, most QLQ-C30 domains showed differences by sex/age, with men scoring somewhat better health than women, while age effects varied across domains. Substantially larger differences were seen in inter-country comparisons, with Austrian and Dutch respondents reporting consistently better health compared with British and Polish respondents.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to systematically collect EORTC QLQ-C30 general population norm data across Europe and North America applying a consistent data collection method across 15 countries. These new norm data facilitate valid intra-country as well as inter-country comparisons and QLQ-C30 score interpretation.


Canada, EORTC QLQ-C30, Europe, General population, Quality of life, US, norm data, normative data, patient-reported outcomes, self-report, survey

Rights and Permissions

Copyright 2018 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

DOI of Published Version



Eur J Cancer. 2019 Jan;107:153-163. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2018.11.024. Epub 2018 Dec 19. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.