UMMS Affiliation

University of Massachusetts Cancer Center

Publication Date


Document Type



Androgen Antagonists; Anilides; Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; Biopsy; Bone Marrow; Bone Marrow Neoplasms; Codon; DNA Mutational Analysis; Flutamide; Humans; Male; Mutation; Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent; Nitriles; Prostatic Neoplasms; Receptors, Androgen; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Tosyl Compounds


Cancer Biology | Oncology


The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases. Mutations were found in 5 of 16 patients who received combined androgen blockade with the AR antagonist flutamide, and these mutant ARs were strongly stimulated by flutamide. In contrast, the single mutant AR found among 17 patients treated with androgen ablation monotherapy was not flutamide stimulated. Patients with flutamide-stimulated AR mutations responded to subsequent treatment with bicalutamide, an AR antagonist that blocks the mutant ARs. These findings demonstrate that AR mutations occur in response to strong selective pressure from flutamide treatment.


Cancer Res. 1999 Jun 1;59(11):2511-5.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Cancer research

Related Resources

Link to article in PubMed

PubMed ID




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