UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Genetics and Genomics | Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Therapeutics


DNA vaccines were pioneered by several groups in the early 1990s. This article presents the reflections of one of these groups on their work with retroviral vectors in chickens that contributed to the discovery and early development of DNA vaccines. Although the findings were initially met with skepticism, the work presented here combined with that of others founded a new method of vaccination: the direct inoculation of purified DNA encoding the target antigen.


DNA vaccines, antibody, cytotoxic T cells, heterologous prime-boost

Rights and Permissions

Copyright Ellen F. Fynan et al. 2018; Published by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. This Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Hum Gene Ther. 2018 Sep;29(9):966-970. doi: 10.1089/hum.2018.066. Epub 2018 Aug 21. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Human gene therapy

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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