UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy And Critical Care Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type



Bacterial Infections and Mycoses | Immunology and Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease | Microbiology | Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases | Therapeutics


BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be key mediators of tuberculosis (TB) pathology but their role in tuberculosis - diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of MMP levels with severity and extent of disease as well as bacterial burden in TB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 8, - 9, - 10, - 12 and - 13 in individuals with TB-DM and compared them to those with TB alone (TB) or healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Circulating levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 10 and - 12 were significantly higher in TB-DM compared to both TB and HC and MMP -13 levels were higher in comparison to HC alone. To understand the effect of standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) on these MMP levels in TB-DM, we measured the levels of MMPs at the end of treatment (post-treatment). Our findings indicate that ATT is associated with a significant reduction in the levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 8 and - 13 post-treatment. Moreover, the levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 9 and - 12 were significantly higher in TB-DM individuals with cavitary disease and/or bilateral disease at baseline but not post-treatment. Similarly, the levels of MMP -1, - 2, - 3 and - 8 exhibited a significant positive relationship with bacterial burden and HbA1c levels at baseline but not post-treatment. Within the TB-DM group, those known to be diabetic before incident TB (KDM) exhibited significantly higher levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 10 and - 12 at baseline and of MMP-1 and -3 post-treatment compared to those newly diagnosed with DM (NDM). Finally, KDM individuals on metformin treatment exhibited significantly lower levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 9 and - 12 at baseline and of MMP-7 post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that systemic MMP levels reflect baseline disease severity and extent in TB-DM, differentiate KDM from NDM and are modulated by ATT and metformin therapy.


Diabetes mellitus, Matrix metalloproteinases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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© The Author(s). 2018 Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

DOI of Published Version



BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 25;18(1):345. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3246-y. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

BMC infectious diseases

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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.