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Immunity | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Virus Diseases


The peripheral blood represents only a small fraction of the total number of lymphocytes in the body. To develop a more thorough understanding of T cell dynamics, including the effects of SIV/SHIV/HIV infection on immune cell depletion and immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), one needs to utilize approaches that allow direct visualization of lymphoid tissues. In the present study, noninvasive in vivo imaging of the CD4+ T cell pool has revealed that the timing of the CD4+ T cell pool reconstitution following initiation of ART in SIV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) appears seemingly stochastic among clusters of lymph nodes within the same host. At 4 weeks following initiation or interruption of cART, the changes observed in peripheral blood (PB) are primarily related to changes in the whole-body CD4 pool rather than changes in lymphocyte trafficking. Lymph node CD4 pools in long-term antiretroviral-treated and plasma viral load-suppressed hosts appear suboptimally reconstituted compared with healthy controls, while splenic CD4 pools appear similar between the 2 groups.


AIDS/HIV, Diagnostic imaging, Immunology

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Copyright © 2018, American Society for Clinical Investigation. The JCI is an open access journal. Publisher PDF posted as allowed by the publisher's policy posted at

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JCI Insight. 2018 Jul 12;3(13). pii: 97880. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.97880. [Epub ahead of print] Link to article on publisher's site

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JCI insight

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