UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology

Publication Date


Document Type



Diagnosis | Digestive System | Digestive System Diseases | Gastroenterology | Surgical Procedures, Operative


Background: The suspected blood indicator (SBI) function in the RAPID Reader v8.3 program was designed to quickly identify the presence of blood in video capsule endoscopy. While previous retrospective studies have shown that the SBI function was accurate in detecting the presence of active bleeding in the small bowel, its specificity and sensitivity were poor.

Methods: An initial retrospective review (phase 1) compared 115 patients with active gastrointestinal bleeding seen on video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to 115 patients with no active bleeding seen on VCE to produce a highly accurate algorithm. A prospective study (phase 2) was then performed by applying the algorithm to 100 consecutive patients who received VCE for the following indications: obscure bleeding, iron deficiency anemia, melena, and hematochezia.

Results: The initial retrospective review found that eight contiguous SBI markers had a specificity of 100% in identifying active gastrointestinal bleeding regardless of the total number of SBI markers, while two or more contiguous SBI markers had a sensitivity of 96.5%. Using a cutoff of eight contiguous SBI markers, the prospective arm found that there was a 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting active gastrointestinal bleeding (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The SBI function can greatly facilitate the identification of active gastrointestinal bleeding on VCE by using eight contiguous SBI markers as a cutoff for active bleeding.


Gastrointestinal bleeding, Obscure bleeding, Small bowel bleeding, Small bowel endoscopy, Video capsule endoscopy

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Articles © The authors. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

DOI of Published Version



Gastroenterology Res. 2018 Apr;11(2):106-111. doi: 10.14740/gr949w. Epub 2018 Apr 7. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Gastroenterology research

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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